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Polypropylene Homo-Polymer (PPHP): Definition, Uses and Advantages

Polypropylene Homo-Polymer PPHP Definition, Uses Advantages

Polypropylene (PP) was invented in 1954 by Professor Natta and was first manufactured commercially under the Moplen brand by the Montedison company in 1957.

Polypropylene (PP) is easy to process, low density and relatively inexpensive compared to other polymers.

The main European polypropylene producers are Basell, Borealis, Total, Sabic, and now Braskem which bought the DOW assets in 2011.

Polypropylene is divided into three main groups:

  • Polypropylene homopolymer (PPHP) grades exhibit high stiffness.
  • Copolymer polypropylene (cPP) grades provide excellent impact resistance even at low temperatures.
  • Random copolymer polypropylene (raco PP) or random copolymer grades are transparent.


Polypropylene homopolymers are as known as PPH or PPHP, are thermoplastic resins produced through the polymerization of propylene with Ziegler-Natta catalysts.

Polypropylene homopolymer (PPH) is the most widely used. PPH offers a good strength to weight ratio and is stiffer than copolymer. These benefits combined with good chemical resistance and weldability make it an ideal material for many corrosion-resistant structures.

The homopolymers can be used in different processing technologies, such as injection molding, blow molding, film, fiber, sheet extrusion and thermoforming.

Advantages of Polypropylene homopolymer (PPH)

  • Excellent chemical resistance in corrosive environments
  • High rigidity in the upper thermal range
  • Excellent resistance to organic solvents, degreasing agents and electrolytic aggressions
  • Lightweight
  • Stain Resistant
  • Low rate of humidity absorption

Brexit: What are the Consequences after more than a year?

Brexit What is the assessment after more than a year-min

In discussion for a long time, the United Kingdom and the European Union have finally managed to find a trade and cooperation agreement, on December 24, 2020.

In this agreement, it was agreed that the United Kingdom would officially leave the European Union on January 1, 2021. With Brexit, the United Kingdom again became a third state, new customs regulations then took effect for trade with the European Union.

More than a year after Brexit came into effect, where are we? And how are trades going? Let’s see the consequences and results of Brexit after almost 2 years.

January 1, 2021: A date full of hopes and uncertainties!

Long awaited, Brexit was actually introduced on January 1, 2021. A date filled with hope for many Britons but also uncertainty for others, including member countries of the European Union. Indeed, while on paper Brexit seemed promising to many, the reality is quite different for some.

A half-hearted reality compared to what most pro-Brexit people imagined. Indeed, according to a poll recently published by The Observer, 6 out of 10 voters think that Brexit is taking a bad turn or in any case different from what they had imagined.

Initially camouflaged by the Covid-19 health crisis, the economic consequences directly linked to Brexit are now beginning to be felt. Among the most widespread economic difficulties, we find in particular a lack of labor but also many shortages on the shelves of supermarkets.

Although these difficulties can also be found at the global level currently, in the context of the United Kingdom, the finger is pointed at all the importers who avoid European suppliers to limit the administrative “paperwork”. Or the farmers who lack the manpower for their harvests. The supply chain is being undermined and some do not hide their dissatisfaction or concern about the future.

Road freight transport, a key sector for the United Kingdom and the European Union

All of these changes also impact the road transport sector. The International Road Transport Union (IRU), of which Albatross Shipping UK is a member, explains that road freight transport is a crucial sector for both the United Kingdom and the European Union. The following figures confirm this:

  • More than 4.4 million freight vehicles link the UK and the EU.
  • The UK exports 21,350,000 tonnes of goods by road to the EU (Eurostat 2015).
  • The EU exports 26,816,000 tonnes of goods to the UK.

If we look at the figures announced by Eurotunnel, it is certain that Brexit has shaken road freight transport. For example, in 2021, Eurotunnel reports a 6% drop compared to 2020 for the transport of trucks via its Freight shuttles.

As for it, the labor shortage in road transport is very real since about 100,000 truck driver positions are vacant. This lack is explained in particular by the departure of thousands of Europeans working in the United Kingdom who would have returned home during the pandemic.

Indeed, many would not have returned because of the entry into force of Brexit. Road transport companies are stepping up their efforts by increasing driver salaries, hoping to retain and attract more candidates. However, the long-term situation cannot be viable, especially with the meteoric rise in fuel prices due to the geopolitical context.

What consequences to expect for Brexit?

Although Brexit is indeed effective for the British as well as for the member countries of the European Union, all the regulations are still not all established.

Indeed, if after a transition period all the regulations have been (re)established, new ones are still to come. This is particularly the case of the ICS GB which should come into force on July 1, 2022. Once again, anticipation and preparation of the customs formalities required are essential for road haulers so that they are not blocked at the border.

Maersk to Enter Aviation Industry: Air transport becomes a necessity

Maersk to Enter Aviation Industry Air transport-min

The epidemic has disrupted supply chains, and the lack of labor at ports and terminals has made air freight a more reliable method of freight transportation.

Shipping giant companies scramble to buy freighters and find airline partners to meet customer demand.

The Wall Street Journal reported that the three heroes of global container shipping: Denmark’s AP Moeller-Maersk, France’s CMA CGM, and Switzerland’s Mediterranean Shipping Co. (MSC) have avoided using expensive air freight in the past.

But the global supply chain has been blocked for many years, forcing many customers to switch to higher-priced but more reliable air freight, prompting shipping companies to scramble to get air freight.

“For some key customers, air freight is a necessity,” said Michel Pozas Lucic, global head of Maersk’s airfreight division.

Auto parts, apparel, and technology products used to rely on sea transportation. Now they are worried about the port being blocked, and they are also afraid of missing the launch of new products, so they have switched to air transportation.

Abbie Durkin, owner of Palmer & Purchase, a womenswear boutique in New York, said that shipping is not the only option. They use planes to deliver their entire winter clothing line to ensure products arrive before Christmas.

Last year, Maersk acquired German air freight carrier Senator International, which doubled its air freight volume in one go; the company also purchased new aircraft for its air freight division.

Earlier this year, Maersk rival CMA CGM and Air France-KLM signed an agreement to share cargo space.

MSC joined Deutsche Lufthansa to bid for Italian airline ITA Airways, but was unable to win the bid.

According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), airfreight industry revenue will grow 21% to $289 billion in 2021, up from $238 billion in 2020 and $264 billion in 2019.

IATA forecasts that global air revenue will continue to grow by 4.4% this year. From January to April this year, the air freight rate increased by nearly 200% annually.

How Does Ship Electricity Production System Work?

How Does Ship Electricity Production System Work-2-min

Ship electricity or ship electrical power systems are one of the most vital systems of the ship. Without the ship’s electricity, the ship cannot perform its main duty of navigation and money-making loading and unloading operations. In order to understand the importance of the term Ship Electric, it will not be enough to examine it as a whole in one word. 

Therefore, both words need to be studied separately. Here, the ship is taken not only as the vehicle but also as all the places needed during the transportation of the cargo from one place to another, such as piers, ports, loading and unloading terminals. Electricity, on the other hand, can be defined as a type of energy that we can use in different places by making use of the voltage difference that occurs during the movement of electrons.

How is Ship Electricity Produced?

There is more than one answer to the question of how ship electricity is produced. For example, it is possible to produce ship electricity with a diesel engine, a shaft generator or a steam-gas turbine generator. From the picture excerpt below, you can have an idea about the ship electricity production stages in general.

How Does Ship Electricity Production System Work-min

The production in the diagram above is a production phase for the ship only. Apart from this, without the need for such a situation in ports, shipyards or maritime enterprises connected to the port, electricity is used directly from land facilities, with a terrestrial electricity subscription as in homes.

Unlike terrestrial power generation systems, in ship power systems, the neutral phase end of the electric generator is not grounded or connected to the ship’s hull. Even if it seems like a serious fault in grounding, it is a requirement for the electrical cycle of the equipment on the ship to be completed and operational.

The electrical frequency used in ships is also among the topics of interest. For example, in terrestrial systems, electricity frequency may be 50 Hz or 60 Hz due to regional differences in the generated power. Even if the electrical frequency on ships is not precise, they are generally designed as 60 Hz so that low volume equipment can reach high speed. I want to repeat. It’s not a rule, it’s usually that way. There are of course exceptional cases.

Ship electrical voltage also differs from terrestrial systems in some aspects. The electrical energy, which is generally produced from generators at 440V voltage, can be adjusted to different values ​​according to the characteristics of the equipment and region to be used. For example, 220V and 110V are required for some equipment and lighting, and 24V is required for some sensitive equipment and safe lighting systems. These different voltages are provided by different transformers on the ships and the necessary electrical voltage is provided to the necessary places.

Ship Electrical System Parts

While explaining the issue of electricity generation on the ship, I talked about the production of ship electricity by different methods. The electricity produced is transformed into a formation that can be used by passing through different sections. Ship electrical system sections are as follows;

Generator System

  • Main Switchboard System
  • Emergency Switchboard System
  • Distribution System
  • Generator System

We can accept it as the first starting point of the ship electrical system. The system consists of a drive driven by a diesel engine or a steam turbine driven turbine shaft, and an alternator system used to generate electricity from the rotating motion obtained therefrom.

Today, an additional shaft generator is used to take advantage of the movement in the main engines of some ships in order not to use an extra diesel generator in suitable situations suitable for the size of the ship.

In order to carry the power produced by this type of ship diesel generators , the electrical energy produced through the main busbars called busbars is transferred to the main panels and emergency panels.

Main Switchboard System

The main power plant on the ship, the place we call the panel, is considered as the main distribution center that receives its energy from the ship’s generator system and distributes it to other parts of the ship. With 440V voltage, it helps to power many critical equipment on board.

How Fast can Ships go? Knots Explained


One of the frequently asked questions to me is how fast are the ships?, ship speed, what is the ship speed ? I wanted to write an article on how fast do ships go to answer questions such as: Of course, before that, I will try to explain the subject by talking about some maritime terms that we need to know about ship speed.

Ship Speed ​​Measurement Unit Knots

You may have heard the word knot when talking about the unit of speed, especially in maritime and aviation. The expression km/h on land is expressed in knots in maritime and aviation.

The word “knot” means the path recorded in 1 hour. If it will be used for a ship, 1 nautical mile in 1 hour is equal to 1 air mile recorded in 1 hour if it will be used in the aviation industry. From here, we understand that nautical miles and air miles are different things.

  • 1 nautical mile is 1852 meters.

Ship Speed ​​Measuring Device

So, how is ship speed measured? question comes to mind. Undoubtedly, people used certain instruments and a device to measure ship speed for this purpose. Let’s take a look at its historical development first.

It is known that sailors have been trying to find the speed of the ship with an instrument called a longline to measure the speed of the ships since the 1600s . This system consisted of a triangular piece of wood tied to the end of a rope and an hourglass. There were knots, or “knots”, tied at equal intervals (approximately 14.4 meters) on the rope. While the ship was cruising, that is, on the water, the piece of wood at the end of the rope was thrown into the water from the back of the ship and the knots on the part of the rope above the sea were counted in a certain time interval (about 30 seconds) measured by the hourglass. For example, if 10 knots were counted in 30 seconds, the speed of the ship would be expressed as 10 knots. 1 knot measured by this method was approximately equal to 1 nautical mile in 1 hour.


Ship Speed ​​Measurement with Chip Log Method

It would not be possible without mentioning the chip log method on ship speed measurement methods . It should also be noted that the chip log method, which is known to have been actively found and used in the 1500s-1600s, and all previous methods were used by Dutch sailors.


The Chip Log ship speed measuring instrument consisted of a thin rope wound on a reel and a plate with weight holes at the end of this rope. Knots were tied at certain equal intervals on the rope between the wooden plate and the pulley. It was based on the method of assuming the speed of the ship as 1 knot, through the hourglass, at each point where these nodes touched the water. How to measure ship speed with chip log? Watch the video below and you can have information about it.

How Is Ship Speed ​​Measuring Today?

Today , different methods are used for ship speed measurement. One of them is the sonar systems we call Speed ​​Log. The system, which is positioned at a certain point of the ship, can determine the speed by making the ratio between the return time and the progress amount of the ship by spreading certain waves to the sea.

Another frequently used method is through GPS, global positioning services, whose history does not go back that far. In fact, speed detection with GPS can be used not only for sea vehicles, but also for speed detection of almost all moving vehicles.

Measuring boat speed with actual knots (a chip log)

What is CMR Document and Application Areas?


In international transportation; There are many agreements that are used in determining mutual terms. However, these vary according to the type of transport.

  • In sea transports; Ocean Bill of Lading (B/L)Marine Bill of Lading;
  • in rail transports; Railway Bill (RWB)-Railway Transport Bill,
  • in road transport; Truck Bill of Lading or CMR-Land Transport Bill,
  • in air transport; Airway Bill (AWB)-Air Transport Bill is used.

The most widely used type of transportation in the world is the road, and in this case, CMR agreements are frequently encountered.

What is CMR Document? (meaning, Definitions)

This document, also know as CMR consignment note, constitutes a proof of the contract of carriage by road, determines the scope and responsibility for the operation performed and identifies the parties involved and the goods being transported. Its use implies adherence to the CMR (“Contrat de Transport International de Marchandises par Route) that governs this document. This document includes the instructions that the exporter or the importer gives to the carrier, so it necessarily has to accompany the goods in road shipments. The issue of this document should be made by the carrier (the driver of the truck) with all the necessary information to formalize the collection of the goods.

Based on the CMR, the International Road Transport Union (IRU) developed a standard CMR waybill. The CMR waybill is prepared in three languages. On the back is the text again in three languages. This aids the waybill in being accepted and recognised throughout Europe. Checked by customs and police, a transport document must be present when the shipment is transported.


CMR Agreement and Scope

CMR document; It is international in nature and is a road transport document used by countries that accept the provisions of the agreement. Opening; Convertion is Marchandises Routiers; It means International Road Goods Transport Insurance. It is signed on both sides as the buyer and the transport company. It is essential that the goods be transported under the specified conditions; form the subject of the contract. It indicates the forms of transportation, its surrender. It is a legal document.

There is no special format for the CMR document. All of the interests and accuracy contained in the CMR document belong to the exporting company.

The CMR document is issued in 3 original copies. One belongs to the exporting company, one to the goods while being transported by road, and the last to the carrier company. Since it is a legal document; used as evidence in litigation matters. The CMR agreement is signed by the carrier and the loader company. Printed or stamped can also be used instead of signature.

  • Responsibilities of the exporter company on the CMR document;
  • The information on the Link CMR document is correct
  • Making the goods packaging perfect
  • It is essential to prepare the documents required by the customs.
  • Responsibilities for the transport company;
  • Loss, damage or delay of the goods between the date of transfer and the delivery date of the goods to be transported
  • These are the actions of employees, agents and subcontractors involved in the transportation process.

In CMR, which has a highway agreement; Installation cannot be done domestically. So international transportation is a must. The subject of transport must be goods. Credit and debt must create a relationship. Due to this situation, it should be prepared under legal conditions; Both sides must protect their rights. In no way can it contain a provision regarding the belonging of the property and no rights can be claimed.

Polypropylene Homo-Polymer PPHP Definition, Uses Advantages

Polypropylene Homo-Polymer (PPHP): Definition, Uses and Advantages

Polypropylene (PP) was invented in 1954 by Professor Natta and was first manufactured commercially under the Moplen brand by the Montedison company in 1957.Polypropylene...